Drinking Water Update

  • August 28, 2019 - DPSCD announced clean drinking water for students, staff and families before the start of the school year. More than 500 hydration stations have been installed in DPSCD schools and serves as the long-term solution for clean drinking water. This was made possible by the business community who collectively donated more than $2.9 million to fund for the hydration stations in DPSCD schools. The district met its timeline to ensure all students have clean drinking water by installing water hydration stations in all schools as planned.

    At the press conference, Dr. Vitti stated, "As an organization we defined the problem and moved forward with a solution based on the timeline we articulated last year. This work would not have happened without the contributions from our partners. We've implemented one hydration station per every 100 students, and every school has at least two hydration stations to ensure our students are safe. This was an out of box solution to address this problem as there are not fefderal or state laws to test water."

    The district hopes their proactive approach to ensuring clean water for students will be shared by other schools in Detroit and throughout the country. 

    Organization

    Donation

    Quicken Loans Community Fund & Gilbert Family Foundation
    ($250,000 from each entity)

    $500,000

    United Way

    $500,000

    Delta Dental Foundation

    $300,000

    DTE Foundation

    $300,000

    Kellogg Foundation

    $300,000

    Ford Motor Company Fund

    $200,000

    GM Foundation

    $200,000

    Detroit Lions

    $156,000

    Blue Cross Blue Shield/Blue Care Network

    $100,000

    FCA Foundation

    $100,000

    Ascension Michigan

    $50,000

    Community Foundation of Southeastern Michigan

    $50,000

    DMC Foundation

    $50,000

    Henry Ford Health System

    $50,000

    The Jewish Fund

    $25,000

    United Way (Online Campaign)

    $15,900

    PNC

    $15,000

    Whole Foods Detroit

    $3,350

    The Rotary Foundation

    $3,000

    Individual Donors

    $905

    Total

    $2,919,155

     

    October 9, 2018 - Detroit Public Schools Community District (DPSCD) announced its long-term solution to provide clean drinking water for the more than 50,000 students and staff throughout the District with the installation of water hydration systems. In addition, the District announced support from approximately a dozen philanthropic partners who have committed $2.4 million to support the purchase and installation of the hydration systems to be placed in every school building by summer of 2019. DPSCD will be one of the nation’s largest public school districts with hydration stations in all school buildings. The hydration stations offer filtration technology designed to cool water and remove lead, copper and other contaminants.


    Download current Water Hydration Schedule: Water Hydration Schedule

    The following table is the DPSCD Water Hydration Schedule that lists all schools, start date, end date and status of installation as of 07/01/19.

First Phase

No. School Name Start Date End Date Status Testing Date
1 Earhart 10/22/2018 10/24/2018 Completed 11/30/2018
2 Brenda Scott 10/22/2018 10/25/2018 Completed 11/30/2018
3 Mackenzie 10/25/2018 10/29/2018 Completed 11/30/2018
4 Fisher Upper 10/31/2018 11/2/2018 Completed 11/30/2018
5 Randolph Vocational 11/6/2018 11/9/2018 Completed 11/30/2018
6 Breithaupt Vocational 10/15/2018 11/5/2018 Completed 12/7/2018
7 Fisher Lower 11/5/2018 11/6/2018 Completed 12/7/2018
8 Munger 12/10/2018 12/13/2018 Completed 1/11/2019
9 Davis Aerospace @ Golightly 11/1/2018 11/2/2018 Completed 12/7/2018
10 East English Village 11/2/2018 11/6/2018 Completed 12/7/2018
11 Diann Banks 11/2/2018 11/6/2018 Completed 12/7/2018
12 Hutchinson 11/5/2018 2/22/2019 Completed 3/25/2019
13 Law 11/8/2018 11/9/2018 Completed 12/14/2018
14 Renaissance 12/10/2018 12/14/2018 Completed 12/14/2018
15 JL White 12/10/2018 12/14/2018 Completed 12/14/2018
16 Roberto Clemente 11/12/2018 11/13/2018 Completed 12/14/2018
17 Ron Brown 11/13/2018 11/15/2018 Completed 12/14/2018
18 Carstens 1/3/2019 1/8/2019 Completed 1/11/2019
19 Duke Ellington 11/21/2018 11/24/2018 Completed 12/21/2018
20 ML King 11/26/2018 11/27/2018 Completed 12/21/2018
21 Gompers 11/30/2018 12/3/2018 Completed 12/21/2018
22 Mumford 11/28/2018 12/3/2018 Completed 1/4/2019
23 Cass Tech 12/26/2018 1/11/2019 Completed 1/18/2019
24 Schulze 12/4/2018 12/6/2018 Completed 1/4/2019
25 Osborn 11/20/2018 12/14/2018 Completed 1/4/2019
26 Charles Wright 12/13/2018 12/14/2018 Completed 1/4/2019
27 Detroit School of Arts 12/17/2018 12/19/2018 Completed 1/11/2019
28 Drew Transition Center 12/20/2018 12/28/2019 Completed 1/15/2019
29 Speech & Hearing 1/2/2019 1/8/2019 Completed 1/15/2019

Second Phase

No. School Name Start Date End Date Status Testing Date
1 Adult Education - West Campus 12/27/2018 1/8/2019 Completed 1/15/2019
2 Ann Arbor Trail 12/29/2018 1/11/2019 Completed 1/18/2019
3 Bagley 12/26/2018 12/28/2018 Completed 1/18/2019
4 Bates 1/2/2019 1/3/2019 Completed 1/18/2019
5 Bow 1/9/2019 1/11/2019 Completed 1/18/2019
6 Carver 1/10/2019 1/11/2019 Completed 1/23/2019
7 Cody 1/14/2019 1/18/2019 Completed 1/25/2019
8 Communications & Media Arts 1/17/2019 1/18/2019 Completed 1/25/2019
9 Cooke 1/19/2019 1/23/2019 Completed 1/25/2019
10 Dixon 1/19/2019 1/23/2019 Completed 1/25/2019
11 Dossin 1/10/2019 1/12/2019 Completed 1/25/2019
12 Edison 1/23/2019 1/25/2019 Completed 2/1/2019
13 Emerson 1/28/2019 1/31/2019 Completed 2/8/2019
14 Foreign Language & Immersion Cultural 12/27/2019 1/10/2019 Completed 1/24/2019
15 Henry Ford 2/1/2019 2/2/2019 Completed 2/8/2019
16 Gardner 2/4/2019 2/5/2019 Completed 2/8/2019
17 Henderson 2/6/2019 2/9/2019 Completed 2/15/2019
18 John R. King 1/14/2019 1/17/2019 Completed 2/8/2019
19 Ludington 1/17/2019 1/19/2019 Completed 2/8/2019
20 Mann 2/11/2019 2/12/2019 Completed 2/8/2019
21 Palmer Park Prep 1/22/2019 1/24/2019 Completed 2/8/2019
22 Pasteur 2/13/2019 2/14/2019 Completed 3/1/2019
23 Vernor 2/15/2019 2/15/2019 Completed 3/1/2019
24 Coleman Young 1/24/2019 1/28/2019 Completed 3/1/2019
25 Hutchinson @ Howe 11/5/2019 2/22/2019 Completed 3/25/2019
26 Fleming 1/29/2019 1/30/2019 Completed 3/1/2019
27 Pulaski 1/31/2019 2/4/2019 Completed 3/1/2019
28 Southeastern 2/5/2019 2/6/2019 Completed 3/1/2019

Third Phase

No. School Name Start Date End Date Status Testing Date
1 Academy of the Americas ES/MS 2/18/2019 2/26/2019 Complete 3/25/2019
2 Bennett 2/20/2019 3/4/2019 Complete 3/25/2019
3 Bethune 3/1/2019 3/8/2019 Complete 3/25/2019
4 Burns 3/1/2019 3/8/2019 Complete 3/11/2019
5 Burton 3/1/2019 3/8/2019 Complete 3/18/2019
6 Ben Carson HS of Science & Medicine 3/8/2019 3/11/2019 Complete 3/25/2019
7 Central/Durfee 3/14/2019 3/21/2019 Complete 4/1/2019
8 Clippert 3/8/2019 3/13/2019 Complete 3/18/2019
9 Davison 3/18/2019 3/24/2019 Complete 3/25/2019
10 Frederick Douglass 3/21/2019 3/25/2019 Complete 3/25/2019
11 Early Intervention 3/25/2019 3/29/2019 Complete 4/1/2019
12 Greenfield Union 3/25/2019 3/29/2019 Complete 5/3/2019
13 Keidan 3/25/2019 3/29/2019 Complete 4/1/2019
14 Thurgood Marshall 3/30/2019 4/6/2019 Complete 4/8/2019
15 Neinas 3/8/2019 3/14/2019 Complete 3/25/2019
16 Noble 3/30/2019 4/6/2019 Complete 5/3/2019
17 Nolan 4/1/2019 4/7/2019 Complete 5/3/2019
18 Priest 4/1/2019 4/8/2019 Complete 5/3/2019
19 Paul Robeson/Malcolm X 4/1/2019 4/3/2019 Complete 5/3/2019
20 Sampson/Webber 4/8/2019 4/12/2019 Complete 3/25/2019
21 Spain 4/8/2019 4/12/2019 Complete 5/3/2019
22 Thirkell 4/15/2019 4/21/2019 Complete 5/3/2019
23 Mark Twain 4/15/2019 4/21/2019 Complete 5/3/2019
24 Western 4/15/2019 4/24/2019 Complete 3/29/2019
25 Westside Alternative 4/15/2019 4/24/2019 Complete 5/17/2019

Fourth Phase

No. School Name Start Date End Date Status Testing Date
1 Adult Education - East Campus 5/17/2019 5/21/2019 Complete 5/31/2019
2 Blackwell 5/17/2019 5/22/2019 Complete 6/27/2019
3 Brewer 5/20/2019 5/25/2019 Complete 6/27/2019
4 Bunche 5/20/2019 5/25/2019 Complete 6/13/2019
5 Carleton 5/14/2019 5/17/2019 Complete 5/31/2019
6 Chyrsler 5/22/2019 5/24/2019 Complete 6/13/2019
7 Clark 6/3/2019 6/14/2019 Complete 6/27/2019
8 Detroit Collegiate Prep 6/21/2019 6/28/2019 Complete 7/3/2019
9 Denby 6/21/2019 6/28/2019 Complete 7/3/2019
10 Detroit International Academy 5/14/2019 5/17/2019 Complete 6/13/2019
11 Catherine Ferguson 5/24/2019 5/29/2019 Complete 6/14/2019
12 Moses Field 5/28/2019 5/31/2019 Complete 6/27/2019
13 Marcus Garvey 5/28/2019 5/31/2019 Complete 6/27/2019
14 Golightly Educational Center 5/10/2019 5/13/2019 Complete 6/14/2019
15 Harms 6/6/2019 6/12/2019 Complete 6/27/2019
16 A.L. Holmes 6/13/2019 6/21/2019 Complete 6/27/2019
17 Detroit Lions 4/26/2019 5/4/2019 Complete 5/31/2019
18 Marquette 6/17/2019 6/21/2019 Complete 6/27/2019
19 Mason 5/13/2019 5/17/2019 Complete 5/31/2019
20 Maybury 6/6/2019 6/15/2019 Complete 6/27/2019
21 Nichols 6/17/2019 6/28/2019 Complete 7/3/2019
22 Pershing 5/14/2019 6/28/2019 Complete 6/28/2019
23 Wayne 6/17/2019 6/28/2019 Complete 7/3/2019

Testing Updates as of 1/13/19

  •  

    No.  School Name  Exceedance for Lead and/Copper 
    1 Ann Arbor Trail Magnet School  Yes
    2 Bagley Elementary School  Yes
    3 Bethune Elementary-Middle School  Yes
    4 Blackwell Institute, Catherine C No
    5 Brenda Scott  No
    6 Brewer Yes
    7 Carleton Elementary School  Yes
    8 Central High School/Durfee ES/MS No
    9 Chrysler Elementary School  Yes
    10 Cody (three small High Schools) Yes
    11 Communication & Media Arts High School  No
    12 Cooke Elementary School , STEM Academy No
    13 Davis Aerospace HS at Golightly  Yes
    14 Denby  Yes
    15 Detroit International Academy for Young Women  yes
    16 Detroit School of Arts (DSA) No
    17 Dossin Elementary/Middle School  No
    18 Douglass Academy for Young Men  Yes
    19 Duke Ellington @ Beckham No
    20 East English Village/Diann Banks Williams  No
    21 Emerson Elementary/Middle School  Yes
    22 Fleming Yes
    23 Gardner Elementary Yes
    24 Golightly Educational Center  Yes
    25 Gompers, Samuel L. Elementary/Middle School  No
    26 Greenfield Union Elementary/Middle School  Yes
    27 Henderson, Erma Academy  Yes
    28 Henry Ford High School/Turning Point  No
    29 King, Martin Luther Jr. Senior High School No
    30 Law Yes
    31 Mackenzie Elementary/Middle School  No
    32 Mann Elementary School  Yes
    33 Marquette Elementary/Middle School  Yes
    34 Mason Elementary/Middle School  yes
    35 Mumford High School  Yes
    36 Munger Elementary/Middle School  No
    37 Nichols Academy  Yes
    38 Nolan Yes
    39 Osborn  Yes
    40 Pasteur Elementary School  Yes
    41 Priest No
    42 Pulaski  Yes
    43 Randolph Career Academy - Construction Trades  Yes
    44 Robeson, Paul / Malcolm X Academy (at Hally) No
    45 Schulze Elementary/Middle School  No
    46 Southeastern High School  Yes
    47 Speech & Hearing - (Day School for Deaf) Yes
    48 Twain, Mark Academy Yes
    49 West Side Academy Yes
    50 Western International High School  Yes
    51 White No
    52 Wright, Charles Lower Academy  Yes
    53 Ben Carson High School for Science and Medicine Yes
    54 Breithaupt Career and Technical Center  Yes 
    55 Catherine Ferguson Alterative  Yes
    56 Detroit Collegiate Preparatory  Yes 
    57 Fisher Upper Magnet School  No
    58 Palmer Park Preparatory Academy  Yes
    59 Thurgood Marshall Elementary/Middle  Yes
    60 Wayne Elementary School  No
    61 A.L. Holmes Elementary School  Yes 
    62 J.R.King Academy for Performing Arts  Yes
    63 Moses Field Alternative  Yes 
  • Long-term Drinking Water Solution

    October 9, 2018

    DPSCD Announces Hydration Stations: Long-term Drinking Water Solution for All Schools with Philanthropic Support

    District to begin implementation immediately with completion by summer 2019

    Read the full press release

    Please find collaborative information from the Detroit Health Department and the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department below: 

    Detroit Health Department Statement

    • The Detroit Health Department recommends that all children in Detroit under the age of 6 be tested for lead every year. The Detroit Health Department provides free lead testing for all Detroit students at its Samaritan Center Clinic at 5555 Conner, Detroit, Michigan, 48213. Call 313-410-8142 to make an appointment or visit www.detroitmi.gov/health.

     

     

    List of Donors Announced October 9, 2018 and Call to Action: Donate Today

    United Way for Southeastern Michigan is committed to support the effort of raising money for hydration stations and other associated costs. United Way for Southeastern Michigan pledged $500,000 to fund the installation of the water filtration systems in Detroit schools. But we, and the students, need your help. Support safe drinking water by making a donation to the United Way Water Relief Fund, benefiting the Detroit Public Schools Foundation at https://unitedwaysem.org/detroit-public-schools-water-fund/

    Hydration Station Donor Quotes

    Organization Donation
    Quicken $500,000
    United Way for Southeastern Michigan $500,000 w/ $500K match
    Delta Dental Foundation $300,000
    DTE Foundation $300,000
    W.K. Kellogg Foundation $300,000
    GM $200,000
    Ford Motor Company Fund $200,000
    Detroit Lions $156,000
    FCA Foundation $100,000
    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan/Blue Care Network $100,000
    Ascension Michigan $50,000
    HAP/Henry Ford Health System $50,000
    DMC Foundation $50,000
    Community Foundation for Southeast Michigan $50,000
    The Jewish Fund $25,000
    PNC Foundation $10,000
    Detroit Rotary Foundation $3,000
    Whole Foods Market $3,000

    History: Overview

    Superintendent Vitti initiated water testing of all of our school buildings during the spring to ensure the safety of our students and employees. This was not required by federal, state, or city law or mandate. This testing, unlike the previous testing, evaluated all water sources from sinks to drinking fountains.
    On Aug. 24, results were returned for 24 schools and higher than acceptable levels were identified for copper and/or lead in 16 schools at one or more water sources. The District immediately turned off the drinking water at those schools and provided water bottles until water coolers arrived.
    When Dr. Vitti started as superintendent last year, he was notified that 10 schools were using a DiHydro filtration system. He made the decision to shut off all drinking fountains and provide bottled water and water coolers to those schools at that time because of concerns with water quality despite the intervention. The latest water results (16 schools), coupled with those from 2016 (10 DiHydro schools) and follow up results in the spring of 2018 for schools identified with concerns in 2016 (8 schools) in the spring, brings the total number of schools with water quality issues to 34.
    Although we have no evidence that there are elevated levels of copper or lead in our other schools (over 50) where we are awaiting test results, out of an abundance of caution and concern for the safety of our students and employees, Dr. Vitti instructed to turn off all drinking water in our schools until a deeper and broader analysis can be conducted to determine the long-term solutions for all schools.
    Dr. Vitti communicated this decision to the Mayor’s Office and the Mayor and his team are supportive of the decision. The Mayor’s Office plans to partner with us to determine challenges with water quality in our schools and solutions to them.
    We have communicated our decision to staff and families and will continue to communicate when students return to school.

    Updated Statement: September 19, 2018

    As you are aware, the District initiated water testing of all Detroit Public Schools Community District school buildings during the latter part of last school year to ensure the safety of our students and employees. This was not required by federal, state, or city law. This testing, unlike the previous testing in 2016, evaluated all water sources from sinks to drinking fountains. When the first round of results indicated 16 of 24 schools had high elevations of lead and/or copper, we turned all drinking water off in schools and provided bottled water and water coolers.

    We received the latest round of testing results, which follow the same pattern as the first round. 33 of 52 schools have elevated levels of copper and/or lead. This means, to date, that 57 of 86 schools where test results have been provided, elevated levels of copper and/or lead were identified (this does not include the previous 10 Di-Hydro schools where copper and/or lead was detected).We are still awaiting results for seventeen schools (A.L. Holmes, Catherine Ferguson, Palmer Park, Davison, Fisher Upper/Lower, Pershing) and the original 10 Di-Hydro schools. Staff have been informed of the results and the same will occur for families and students through an automated call home and a backpack letter home.

    Moving forward we will continue to use water coolers districtwide and are actively working through the bid processes to make a recommendation to the board for the use of hydration stations. This will occur within the next couple of weeks. The hydration stations would be installed in all schools by beginning of next school year districtwide and replace the need for water coolers. A hydration station would be placed in a school for every 100 students, in addition to one in the kitchen, faculty lounge, and gym. Additional stations would be installed after the first year of implementation if consistent access is a challenge based on the configuration of the school’s building.

    Water test results are posted below.


    Resources

    Detroit Health Department Statement


    Below is a list of the 52 schools where water tests have been recently returned. In addition is a list of schools where previous test results were released followed by the results of schools with elevations.

    Most Recent Round of Test Results (33 of 52)

    No. School Name

    Exceedance for Lead or Copper

    1 Ann Arbor Trail Magnet School

    Yes

    2 Bagley Elementary School

    Yes

    3 Bethune Elementary-Middle School

    Yes

    4 Blackwell Institute, Catherine C

    No

    5 Brenda Scott

    No

    6 Brewer

    Yes

    7 Carleton Elementary School

    Yes

    8 Central High School/Durfee ES/MS

    No

    9 Chrysler Elementary School

    Yes

    10 Cody High School

    Yes

    11 Communication & Media Arts High School

    No

    12 Cooke Elementary School , STEM Academy

    No

    13 Davis Aerospace HS at Golightly

    Yes

    14 Denby

    Yes

    15 Detroit International Academy for Young Women

    Yes

    16 Detroit School of Arts (DSA)

    No

    17 Dossin Elementary/Middle School

    No

    18 Douglass Academy for Young Men

    Yes

    19 Duke Ellington @ Beckham

    No

    20 East English Village/Diann Banks Williams

    No

    21 Emerson Elementary/Middle School

    Yes

    22 Fleming

    Yes

    23 Gardner Elementary

    Yes

    24 Golightly Educational Center

    Yes

    25 Gompers, Samuel L. Elementary/Middle School

    No

    26 Greenfield Union Elementary/Middle School

    Yes

    27 Henderson, Erma Academy

    Yes

    28 Henry Ford High School/Turning Point

    No

    29 King, Martin Luther Jr. Senior High School

    No

    30 Law

    Yes

    31 Mackenzie Elementary/Middle School

    No

    32 Mann Elementary School

    Yes

    33 Marquette Elementary/Middle School

    Yes

    34 Mason Elementary/Middle School

    yes

    35 Mumford High School

    Yes

    36 Munger Elementary/Middle School

    No

    37 Nichols Academy

    Yes

    38 Nolan

    Yes

    39 Osborn

    Yes

    40 Pasteur Elementary School

    Yes

    41 Priest

    No

    42 Pulaski

    Yes

    43 Randolph Career Academy – Construction Trades

    Yes

    44 Robeson, Paul / Malcolm X Academy (at Hally)

    No

    45 Schulze Elementary/Middle School

    No

    46 Southeastern High School

    Yes

    47 Speech & Hearing – (Day School for Deaf)

    Yes

    48 Twain, Mark Academy

    Yes

    49 West Side Academy

    Yes

    50 Western International High School

    Yes

    51 White

    No

    52 Wright, Charles Lower Academy

    Yes

    Previously Released Test Results

    School Name

    Exceedance for Lead or Copper

    Academy of the Americas Elementary-Middle School

    Yes

    Academy of the Americas High School

    No

    Adult Education- East

    Yes

    Adult Education- West

    No

    Bates Academy

    Yes

    Bennett Elementary-Middle School

    Yes

    Burns Elementary School

    No

    Cass Technical High School

    Yes

    Roberto Clemente Elementary

    Yes

    Clippert Elementary Middle School

    Yes

    Coleman Young Elementary School

    Yes

    Davis Aerospace @ Golightly

    Yes

    Dixon Academy

    Yes

    Drew Trainable Center

    No

    Earhart Elementary-Middle School

    No

    Foreign Language Immersion

    Yes

    Harms Elementary School

    No

    Hutchinson @ Howe

    Yes

    Keidan

    Yes

    Neinas Elementary School

    No

    Noble Elementary-Middle School

    Yes

    Marcus Garvey

    Yes

    Maybury Elementary School

    No

    Renaissance High School

    Yes

    Burton International

    Yes

    Bow Elementary-Middle School

    Yes

    Carstens Elementary-Middle School

    Yes

    Carver STEM

    Yes

    Clark Elementary-Middle School

    Yes

    Detroit Lions Academy

    Yes

    Ludington Magnet Middle School

    No

    Ronald Brown Academy

    No

    Sampson-Webber Academy

    Yes

    Spain Elementary-Middle School

    Yes

    Below are the first round of test results and the 24 schools tested :

    Schools with isolated water sources with elevated levels detected in latest round of water testing:

    1. Academy of the Americas Elementary-Middle School
    2. Adult Education- East
    3. Bates Academy
    4. Bennett Elementary-Middle School
    5. Cass Technical High School
    6. Roberto Clemente Elementary
    7. Clippert Elementary Middle School
    8. Coleman Young Elementary School
    9. Davis Aerospace @ Golightly
    10. Dixon Academy
    11. Foreign Language Immersion
    12. Hutchinson @ Howe
    13. Keidan
    14. Noble Elementary-Middle School
    15. Marcus Garvey
    16. Renaissance High School

    No elevations detected in latest round of water testing results returned:

    1. Academy of the Americas High School
    2. Adult Education- West
    3. Burns Elementary School
    4. Drew Transition Center
    5. Earhart Elementary-Middle School
    6. Harms Elementary School
    7. Neinas Elementary School
    8. Maybury Elementary School

     

    DPSCD Engagement Sessions

    DATE TIME LOCATION ADDRESS
    Monday, September 10 4:30 – 5:30 p.m. Mumford High School 17525 Wyoming Street
    Wednesday, September 12 4:30 – 5:30 p.m. East English Village Preparatory Academy 5020 Cadieux
    Monday, September 17 4:30 – 5:30 p.m. Western International High School 1500 Scotten Street
    Tuesday, September 18 4:30 – 5:30 p.m. Benjamin Carson High School of Science and Medicine 571 Mack Ave

    DPSCD Engagement Sessions Flyer – ENGLISH AND SPANISH

    Engagement Session Presentation – Water Testing Timeline

     

    Drinking Water Results Reports 2018